Cancer

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Overview

Cancer refers to a group of diseases characterized by the unregulated division of abnormal cells with the ability to invade and destroy normal human tissue. Cancer can spread throughout the body.
Cancer is the second leading cause of mortality around the globe. Survival rates for many types of cancer are improving because of advances in cancer detection, therapy, and prevention.

Symptoms

  • Cancer signs and symptoms differ depending on whatever area of the body is afflicted.
  • Some general signs and symptoms related with, but not limited to, cancer include as follows:
  • Fatigue
  • A lump or thickening that may be felt beneath the skin
  • Weight fluctuations, including unintentional loss or gain
  • Skin alterations such as yellowing, darkening, or redness of the skin, unhealed wounds, or changes to existing moles
  • alterations in bowel or bladder habits
  • Coughing that persists or difficulty breathing
  • Swallowing Difficulties
  • Hoarseness
  • Consistent indigestion or pain following meals
  • Muscle or joint pain that is persistent and inexplicable
  • Night sweats or persistent, unexplained fevers
  • Unusual bleeding or bruises

When to see a doctor

If you have any persistent signs or symptoms that worry you, make an appointment with your doctor.

If you have no signs or symptoms of cancer but are worried about your risk, consult your doctor. Inquire about which cancer screening tests and therapies are appropriate for you.

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Causes

Changes (mutations) to the DNA within cells cause cancer. Inside a cell, DNA is packed into many separate genes, each of which includes a set of instructions informing the cell what functions to execute as well as how to grow and divide. Errors in the instructions can lead the cell to cease functioning normally and even cause it to become malignant.

What do gene mutations do?

  • A healthy cell can be instructed by a gene mutation to: Allow fast expansion. A gene mutation might instruct a cell to grow and divide faster. This results in a large number of new cells with the same mutation.
  • Inability to control uncontrolled cell growth: Normal cells understand when to stop growing in order to keep an optimal number of each type of cell. Cancer cells lose the processes that inform them when they should stop growing (tumour suppressor genes). Cancer cells can survive and grow when a tumour suppressor gene is mutated.
  • Make blunders when repairing DNA flaws: DNA repair genes detect and fix mistakes in a cell’s DNA. A mutation in a DNA repair gene may result in additional errors that are not corrected, leading to the formation of cancerous cells.

These are the most frequent mutations detected in cancer. However, numerous additional gene alterations can lead to cancer.

What causes gene mutations?

  • Gene mutations can develop for a variety of causes, including:
  • You inherit gene mutations. You might be born with a genetic mutation inherited from your parents. This kind of mutation is only responsible for a small percentage of cancers.
  • After-birth gene mutations The vast majority of gene mutations occur after birth and are not passed down via families. Factors that can cause gene modifications include smoking, radiation, viruses, cancer-causing substances (carcinogens), obesity, hormones, chronic inflammation, and a lack of exercise.

During normal cell development, gene mutations occur regularly. Cells, on the other hand, have a system that identifies and heals mistakes. Occasionally, a mistake gets overlooked. This has the potential to turn a cell malignant.

How do gene mutations interact with each other?

Cancer is caused by the combination of gene mutations that you are born with and those that you acquire during your life.

For example, just because you inherited a genetic mutation that predisposes you to cancer doesn’t imply you’ll get it. Instead, one or more additional gene alterations may be required to produce cancer. When exposed to a cancer-causing material, your inherited gene mutation may make you more likely to acquire cancer than other people.

It is unclear how many mutations must accumulate before cancer may emerge. This is expected to differ amongst cancer kinds.

Risk factors

While doctors have a good knowledge of what variables may raise your risk of cancer, the vast majority of malignancies arise in persons who have no known risk factors. The following are known risk factors for cancer:

Your age

Cancer can grow over decades. As a result, the majority of cancer patients are 65 or older. While cancer is more frequent in older persons, it is not only an adult illness; cancer can be diagnosed at any age.

Your habits

Certain lifestyle choices have been related to an increased cancer risk. Cancer can be caused by smoking, consuming more than one drink per day for women and up to two drinks per day for males, excessive sun exposure or repeated blistering sunburns, obesity, and unsafe sex.

These behaviours can be modified to lessen your risk of cancer, although some are more difficult to modify than others.

Your family history

Only a small fraction of cancers are caused by a genetic condition. If cancer runs in your family, mutations might be passed down from generation to generation. You may be a candidate for genetic testing to check whether you have inherited mutations that raise your chance of developing certain malignancies. It is important to remember that having an inherited genetic mutation does not imply that you will get cancer.

Your health conditions

Certain chronic health disorders, such as ulcerative colitis, can significantly raise your chance of acquiring cancer. Discuss your risk with your doctor.

Your environment

The environment around you may include hazardous substances that raise your chance of developing cancer. Even if you don’t smoke, you may inhale secondhand smoke if you travel to places where others smoke or live with someone who does. Asbestos and benzene, two common household and industrial chemicals, have also been linked to an elevated risk of cancer.

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Complications

  • Cancer and its treatment can result in a number of consequences, including pain. Cancer and cancer therapy can both induce pain, albeit not all cancer is uncomfortable. Cancer-related discomfort can be adequately treated with medications and other techniques.
  • Fatigue. Fatigue in cancer patients has numerous reasons, but it is generally treatable. Fatigue from chemotherapy or radiation therapy is frequent, but it is typically very transitory.
  • Breathing is difficult. Cancer and cancer therapy may induce shortness of breath. Treatments may provide some alleviation.
  • Nausea. Certain tumours and cancer therapies might make you feel sick. Your doctor can sometimes forecast whether or not your therapy will produce nausea. Medications and other therapies may aid in the prevention or reduction of nausea.
  • Constipation or diarrhoea Cancer and cancer therapy can have an impact on your intestines, causing diarrhoea or constipation.
  • Loss of weight. Weight loss may result from cancer and cancer therapy. Cancer robs normal cells of nutrition by stealing their nourishment. This is tough to cure since it is typically unaffected by how many calories or what type of food is consumed. Using artificial feeding through tubes into the stomach or vein does not usually help with weight loss.
  • Changes in your body’s chemistry. Cancer can disrupt your body’s regular chemical balance, increasing your risk of catastrophic problems. Excessive thirst, frequent urination, constipation, and disorientation are all signs and symptoms of chemical imbalances.
  • Problems with the brain and neurological system. Cancer can cause discomfort and loss of function in one section of your body by pressing on neighbouring nerves. Cancer of the brain can induce headaches and stroke-like symptoms, such as weakness on one side of the body.
  • Unusual immunological responses to malignancy. In rare situations, the body’s immune system may target healthy cells in response to the presence of cancer. These extremely unusual responses, known as paraneoplastic syndromes, can cause a variety of signs and symptoms, including trouble walking and convulsions.
  • Cancer that is spreading. Cancer can spread (metastasize) to other regions of the body as it progresses. The location of cancer spread is determined by the type of cancer.
  • Cancer that has returned. Cancer survivors face the danger of recurrence. Some tumours are more prone than others to reoccur. Inquire with your doctor about ways to lower your chance of cancer recurrence. Following treatment, your doctor may design a follow-up care plan for you. This strategy may involve monthly scans and checks to monitor for cancer recurrence in the months and years following your treatment.

Prevention

Doctors have found a number of techniques to minimise your risk of cancer, including:

  • Quit smoking.If you smoke, you should stop. If you haven’t already, don’t start. Cigarette smoking has been linked to a number of malignancies, not just lung cancer. Stopping now will reduce your chance of developing cancer in the future.
  • Avoid overexposure to the sun.The sun’s damaging ultraviolet (UV) rays may increase your chances of developing skin cancer. To decrease your sun exposure, seek shade, wear protective clothing, or use sunscreen.
  • Maintain a nutritious diet.Choose a diet high in fruits and vegetables. Select whole grains and lean protein sources. Limit your intake of processed meats.
  • Most days of the week, exercise. Physical activity on a regular basis has been related to a lower risk of cancer. On most days of the week, aim for at least 30 minutes of physical exercise. If you haven’t been working out regularly, start slowly and gradually increase your time to 30 minutes or more.
  • Keep a healthy weight. Being overweight or obese may raise your chances of developing cancer. A nutritious diet and regular exercise can help you attain and maintain a healthy weight
  • If you want to drink, do so in moderation. If you must consume alcohol, do it in moderation. For healthy people, this equates to one drink per day for women and two drinks per day for men.
  • Schedule cancer screenings. Based on your risk factors, talk to your doctor about the best kind of cancer screening tests for you.
  • Consult your doctor about immunizations. Certain viruses increase your risk of acquiring cancer. Immunizations may help prevent infections like hepatitis B, which increases the risk of liver cancer, and human papillomavirus (HPV), which increases the risk of cervical cancer and other malignancies. Consult your doctor to determine whether you need be immunised against certain viruses.

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